Immigrant Visa Consular Processing is the method of applying for a "green card", also known as lawful permanent residence, from abroad. There are many pathways for eligible noncitizens to apply for a green card from outside the United States.
DS-260 Immigrant Visa Electronic Application
I-864 Affidavit of Support
Civil Document Processing
I-601, I-601A, and I-212 Waivers
I-751 Removal of Conditions